Green Ingredients

Achillea Millefolium (Yarrow) Extract - a clear, brown-green liquid with a faint herbal odour used to help dry or damaged skin by reducing flaking and restoring suppleness.

Aesculus Hippocastanum Extract - horse chestnut contains a high amount of aesculin, which counters the penetration of UV light and subsequent damage. Also contains astringent and toning properties, serving as an anti-inflammatory agent. See also Escin.

Ahnfeltia Concinna Extract - a type of algae which is packed with nutrients including: vitamins, minerals, trace elements and alginate. Believed to promote skin hydration, protect cell activity and act as antioxidants. It normalises the skin’s moisture content and provides suppleness and firmness to the epidermis.

Allantoin - a natural chemical compound that is produced by many organisms, including animals, bacteria and plants. It can be found in botanical extracts of the comfrey plant as well as in urine from cows and other mammals. It can also be chemically synthesised and is reportedly identical to natural allantoin and is therefore considered safe and non-toxic. A natural soothing, anti-irritant, and skin protectant that increases the water content of the extracellular matrix which provides structural support to cells and is an important part of connective tissue. It also increases the smoothness of the skin; promotes cell replication; and promotes the healing of wounds, burns, and scars.

Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice - aloe vera moisturizes the skin, enhances the appearance of dry or damaged skin by reducing flaking and restoring suppleness. When mixed into a cosmetic product, it is doubtful that those qualities remain, although it may still play a role in binding moisture to skin.

Aloe Vera Gel - (not leaf juice) has several properties that are effective in treating a variety of skin conditions, from flaky or dry skin, cosmetic ailments, hair and scalp problems.

Althaea Officinalis (Marshmallow) Extract - has a high mucilage content, this forms a protective layer on broken or inflamed skin, soothing it, giving it moisture and making it soft and supple. (See also Malva Sylvestris (Mallow) Leaf Extract.)

Ammonium Glycyrrhizate - or licorice root is used to soothe skin irritations and to regulate the pH levels. (See also Glycyrrhiza Glabia Root Extract.)

Anthemis Nobilis Flower Oil - an anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, bactericidal and sedative. (See also Chamomile)

Argania Spinosa Kernel Extract - argan oil is deemed by many a super-ingredient for skin care due to its high levels of antioxidants, essential fatty acids and natural vitamin E. Because this natural oil is said to contain three times more anti-aging Vitamin E than any other natural oil, it is often used in skin care products for its restorative and anti-aging benefits.

Arnica Montana - Arnica is made-up of many components, including flavonoids, silicic acid, cartonoids and essential oils. The extract from this plant serves as a fungicide and as an immune-stimulant. In body care Arnica provides a layer of warmth and helps to soothe tired and tight muscles.

Artemisia Umbelliformis Extract - also known as White Genepì and Genepì Blanco is a small herb belonging to the Asteraceae (daisy) family. Protects the skin with antioxidant and radical scavenging properties, it also acts as an anti-bacterial.

Ascorbic Acid - properly formulated, it helps create younger, firmer skin while fading signs of sun damage and post-acne marks. Ascorbic acid is also a strong ingredient when mixed with other antioxidants, or when used alone in higher concentrations, such as 15% or 20% or greater, amounts that can be great for treating extra-stubborn concerns.

Bakuchiol - An antioxidant and phytoestrogen found in the seeds and leaves of the plant Psoralea corylifolia.It may have retinol-like activity on skin when applied twice daily minus the side effects some people experience when they apply retinol.

Bellis Perennis Extract -  from the daisy flower, used for skin lightening, pigmentation disorders and age spots. It's de-pigmentation action is based on the cumulative effect of inhibiting tyrosinase activity (a precursor to melanin) and reducing it's production.

Bisabolol - extracted from Chamomile, also known as Levomenol. Is a skin conditioning agent, enhances the appearance of dehydrated or damaged skin by reducing dry flaking and restoring suppleness to the skin.

Brassica Campestris Oil - Also known as rapeseed, it is a non-fragrant oil with moisturising and antioxidant properties for the skin. It contains Vitamin E and is a rich source of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids which can help supplement the skin’s intercellular matrix.

Buddleja Davidii (Butterfly Bush) Extract - extracts of this plant have potent antioxidant properties and also serves to reduce inflammation.

Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) butter - acts as a skin conditioning agent and viscosity increasing agent. Helps retain moisture and lessen the loss of water by forming a barrier on the skin's surface. Secondly, it also works to reduce the appearance of rough patches and dry flakes on the skin. Moisturizers in shea butter are the same as those produced by the sebaceous glands of the skin. Because its structure and function resembles that of the lipid content of skin, shea butter is considered to be a Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF). As an NMF, it helps keep the intercellular structure of the epidermis intact, and effectively keeps bacteria out, facilitates the skin's healing process, prevents dermal irritation and regenerates the skin.

Caffeine - applied to the skin caffeine may have anti inflammatory properties. It can penetrate skin’s barrier and has a constricting effect, which can help reduce redness but also may be irritating to those with sensitive skin.

Calendula Officinalis Flower Extract - extract derived from the common marigold. Mainly used as a skin conditioning agent, anti-inflammatory, wound healing agent. It has been proven to stimulate the metabolism of glycoproteins, nucleoproteins and collagen during the skin's healing process. This ingredient is extremely soothing and gentle enough for the most sensitive skin types, including newborn baby skin.

Calluna Vulgaris Flower Extract - or heather extract, has anti inflammatory properties.

Camelina Sativa Seed Oil - is a strong antioxidant because of the high Vitamin E and Omega 3 content, it moisturises the skin. It may inhibit inflammation when used topically.

Camellia Sinensis Leaf Extract - commonly known as green tea extract, often used due to the fact that it contains the polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). EGCG polyphenols are widely known for their anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant abilities, and have been shown to inhibit the body's immune suppression and skin cancer induction that typically follows UVB exposure.

Cananga Odorata - or YlangYlang has a soothing effect and its balancing action sorts out over-dry as well as overly-oily skin by balancing the secretion of sebum, it also has a stimulating effect on the scalp which promotes more luxurious hair growth.

Carica Papaya Fruit Extract - an enzyme in the fruit, papain, helps to remove impurities and slough away dead skin cells. Regular use of the ingredient is said to help to fade acne spots, scars, and sun damage.

Carthamus Tinctorius Seed Oil - safflower seed oil, contains beneficial fatty acids, primarily linolenic acid, that can help repair skin’s barrier and that are of particular value to those with dry skin.

Cassia Angustifolia Extract - alternatively known as cassia senna, effectively repairs dryness, provides long lasting suppleness & moisture, exhibits film-forming capacities and retains water on the surface of both skin and hair. It can also function as an anti-inflammatory and treatment for acne.

Castor Oil - has a high concentration of fatty acids, which penetrate the skin relatively quickly, lubricating dry patches and helping cells stay hydrated by surrounding them with a protective oily coating.

Centella Asiatica Extract - alternatively known as gotu kola or Indian pennywort, has antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. It has traditionally been used as a treatment for skin conditions such as psoriasis, dermatitis, and minor burns. It has a toning and tightening effect on the skin when applied topically. Due to its ability to stimulate collagen production, centella asiatica can improve the appearance of aging skin affected by fine lines and wrinkles.

Centaurea Cyanus Flower Extract - or cornflower extract, mainly works as an anti-inflammatory, skin conditioning agent and astringent. It's rich in polyphenols, specifically flavonoids and anthocyanins.

Cera Alba (Beeswax) - used as thickeners, emulsifiers, and as stiffening agents, Beeswax typically contains 10-15 percent paraffin carbohydrates, 36% esters of C16 to C36 fatty acids and about 15 percent cerotic acid, melissic acid and their homologues. It is a biologically active product, retaining anti-bacterial properties and also contains some vitamin A.

Chamomilla Recutita Extract - (chamomile) known for its anti-inflammatory and skin soothing properties, is often used as a conditioning agent and skin cell rejuvenater in cosmetic products. As a conditioner, it enhances the appearance of dehydrated or damaged skin by reducing dry flaking and restoring suppleness to the skin. The plant's flowers are rich in flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin, patuletin and luteolin), which contribute to the ingredient's anti-inflammatory, anti-erythema (reddening of the skin) and anti-pruritic (itchiness) properties that all help improve the speed at which damaged skin heals. It is often used as a natural treatment for various skin disorders such as ezczema and psoriasis. (See also Anthemis Nobilis Flower Oil)

Chondrus Crispus Extract - extract of Irish moss, a form of seaweed, it is a skin conditioning agent and is useful in the control of viscosity in an overall product. It is also packed full of vitamins and minerals which are vital to the maintenance of healthy skin.

Copper Lysinate/Prolinate - aids penetration of ingredients, enhance the stability of a product and aids collagen support and production.

Citric Acid - is an alpha hydroxy acid used in skincare products to adjust the acidity or promote skin peeling and re-growth in the case of anti-aging products.

Citrus Aurantium Bergamia (Bergamot) Fruit Oil - has antiseptic and antibiotic properties when topically applied to the skin and may help sort out acne prone skin.

Citrus Aurantium Amara (Bitter orange) Leaf Oil, also known as Petitgrain, has anti bacterial and anti septic properties, and could help oily or acne prone skin.

Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) - known for its anti inflammatory qualities, helping detoxify congested skin, and soothing dry irritated skin in cases of dermatitis and acne the most. It increases the production of collagen and so removes fine lines and discourages formation of wrinkles. Also it reduces puffiness and promotes young-looking skin.

Citrus Limon (Lemon) Peel Oil - astringent, inducing a tightening or tingling sensation of the skin. A skin conditioning agent and fragrance.

Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) oil - is a pale-yellow, semi-solid, edible oil, a source of lower chain length fatty acids, including lauric acid, capric acid, myristic acid and palmitic acid. It is known as a skin-conditioning agent.

Coleus Forskohlii Root Extract -  a member of the mint and lavender family (Lamiaceae) In vitro, it was found to effectively inhibit the growth of skin pathogens including: 1) Propionibacterium acnes - the acne bacteria, 2) Staphylococcus aureus - a bacterial strain found in infected wounds and skin eruptions, including acne, 3) Staphylococcus epidermidis - a bacterial strain occurring in a variety of opportunistic bacterial skin infections and in acne, and 4) Streptococcus mutans - a bacterial strain associated with the progression of dental caries.

Corn Oil - a rich source of linoleic acid, which is one of two essential acids necessary for health skin and hair growth. It is also recognized as an excellent source of tocopherols which function as antioxidants and provide a good source of Vitamin E.

Crambe Abyssinica Seed Oil - originating in the Mediterranean region and parts of eastern Africa, this hardy plant produces a seed oil which has some very unique properties. With a highly biodegradable profile, this oil has been used as a natural substitute for synthetic mineral oils. It contains higher levels of Erucic Acid than Jojoba oil. For the skin, this means a strong concentration of intensely nourishing Omega 9, a non-essential fatty acid.

As a very stable and long lasting seed oil it rapidly penetrates the outer layers of the epidermis, deeply nourishing the skin while providing a smooth, soft layer of protection against dehydration. This oil closely mimics human sebum and can control the overproduction of sebum which can lead to acne and is great for skins that loose moisture easily. Being very silky in texture, Crambe Abyssinica Seed Oil makes a great natural alternative to silicone in natural skincare products, as it provides a beautifully soft, shine on the skin, without sacrificing skin health.

Cymbopogon Martini - palmarosa or geranium oil, works as a skin conditioning agent and tonic, as a tonic, it balances the skin's sebum production. Contains anti-microbial properties and has the ability to eliminate bacteria that causes acne. As a skin conditioning agent, it helps keep the skin supple and elastic, allowing skin cells to healthily regenerate.

Dimethyl Isosorbide - works as a solvent, and as a viscosity decreasing agent. It has been found that it can effectively penetrate the skin because it has the ability to dissolve loose fat in the skin so that it can carry across the skin membrane. It can enhance the delivery of other ingredients contained in a cosmetic formulation, even those that are water soluble. The solvent action can enable it to effectively reach the source of a skin disorder. This particular quality can be especially beneficial when feeding the skin with antioxidants. It has the ability to enhance the skin lightening, antioxidant and other skin properties of ferulic acid and its esters.

Eucalyptus Globulus Leaf Oil - works well as a natural pharmaceutical product, an antiseptic, pest repellent, and an aromatic antibacterial disinfectant.

Euphrasia Officinalis Extract - or eyebright, its astringent properties account for its usefulness as a topical treatment for under-eye puffiness and dark circles. It counteracts inflammation and reduces mucous drainage, thanks to its high levels of iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, and tannins.

Escin - Extract derived from horse chestnut. When applied topically it can potentially improve circulation, it is also a potent antioxidant. (See also Aesculus Hippocastanum Extract.)

Faex Extract – (see yeast extract.)

Fructose - a humectant which has water-binding properties for skin. (see Glucose & Sucrose)

Garcinia Mangostana (Mangosteen) Fruit Extract - contains some powerful free radical scavengers called xanthones which have potent antioxidant benefits greater than that of Vitamins C & E, supporting healthy collagen renewal, leading to healthier skin and anti aging benefits.

Globularia Alypum (Blue Daisy) Extract - a botanical extract with an anti-inflammatory property. Can be used for soothing and anti-irritant formulations as well through its action on pro-inflammatory mediator synthesis. It contributes to soothe attacked skin and to slow skin aging. Also supports the reduction of discomfort and reactiveness of sensitive skin.

Glucose - a humectant which has water-binding properties for skin. (see Fructose & Sucrose)

Glycerin - is a skin-identical and skin-repairing ingredient, meaning it is a substance found naturally in skin. In that respect it is one of the many substances in skin that help maintain the outer barrier and prevent dryness or scaling.

Glycine - an amino acid, necessary for the development of protein within the skin, may help to repair damaged tissue and to promote healing. May also improve wrinkles when used in conjunction with two additional amino acids, leucine and proline.

Glycolic Acid - is an active compound known as AHA's (alpha hydroxy acids). It has the smallest molecules in the group so is able to penetrate skin deeply and easily. It reacts with the top layer of skin, breaking it down by dissolving sebum and other substances that bind cells together.

Its benefits are multiple;
  1. Releases and dissolves dead skin cells - clearing up blocked pores and blackheads.
  2. A very effective acne treatment - particulary cystic acne which is caused by deep blockages of dead skin cells and sebum.
  3. Reduces fine lines and signs of premature aging by increasing cell turnover - meaning younger, healthier cells are now visible on the skin's surface.
  4. Acne scars respond well to consistent glycolic acid treatment.
  5. Further products and treatments can penetrate deeper as it removes the 'barrier' of dead cells and surface grime.
  6. The effects are compound - meaning frequent use will provide better and better skin.
  7. It minimizes the appearance of pores by keeping them clear and helping the surrounding cells to strengthen and regain elasticity.
Glycyrrhiza Glabia Root Extract - also known as licorice root oil, used as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, primarily because of licochalcone, a molecule contained in licorice root extract which helps control oil production, and helps calm and soothe acne-prone skin. (See also Ammonium Glycyrrhizate.)

Gossypium Herbaceum Seed Oil - cotton seed oil, soothing and conditioning especially for dry skin. Cotton seeds are rich in proteins, sugar components and vitamin B which have conditioning, moisturising and anti-irritant properties.

Hamamelis Virginiana - witch hazel, contains tannin, the most important healing property of this herb. Making up about 8% of its leaves and 1 - 3% of its bark, the tannins are responsible for its astringent properties. These astringent properties allow this herb to be an effective topical treatment for bruises, sore muscles, varicose veins and inflammation.

Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil - Non-volatile, non-fragrant plant oil used as an emollient in cosmetics. Sunflower seed oil has the ability to help repair skin’s barrier and reduce inflammation. It’s a rich source of fatty acids skin can use, including linoleic acid, and is excellent for dry skin.

Hexyl Nicotinate - is the organic compound of nicotine acid (vitamin B3, niacin) and is said to penetrate the skin even better than niacin (B3). Used in Skin care and cosmetics to enhance blood circulation in the skin, regenerate tired dull skin and boost the skin’s natural defenses against irritants.

Hexylresorcinol - has the ability to target pathways in the skin that lead to hyperpigmentation making it a ingredient used in skin lightening products. May reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, increase protection against UVB and UVA rays, and improve the skin's barrier against pollution/sun exposure.

Hibiscus Sabdariffa Flower Extract - contains not only potent antioxidant qualities but also wound-healing ability and, when protected from exposure to light and air until used, this type of hibiscus helps interrupt melanin synthesis, leading to improvements in sun-damaged skin.

Honey Extract - has anti-inflammatory properties and also functions as an antioxidant. Darker honeys have a stronger antioxidant effect than lighter honeys.

Hyaluronic Acid Sodium Salt - See Sodium Hyaluronate

Hydrolyzed Sodium Hyaluronate - See Sodium Hyaluronate

Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein - can nourish and soften the hair making hair appear volumised. Retains moisture in the skin protecting it from drying out and makes it soft and conditioned. Found to reduce the appearance of wrinkles.

Hydrolyzed Yeast Protein - may improve moisture content on the skin, making the skin smoother to the touch, less prone to breakout and help clear up skin conditions which are a result of dryness and lack of moisture. (See also Faex Extract.)

Hydroxypropyl Cyclodextrin - works alongside Palmitoyl Tripeptide-38 to provide an alternative to hyaluronic acid and collagen injections. Its active ingredient is supposed to provide visible, filling and anti-wrinkle effects on the epidermis, the dermal-epidermal junction and the dermis.

Isononyl Isononanoate - is an emollient skin conditioning agent, a synthetic ester which is a compound formed from the reaction between an alcohol and an acid via the elimination of water. Almost all of the esters used in cosmetic products are non-irritating and in most cases are quite beneficial for dry skin.

Juglans Regia Seed Extract - walnut extract contains omega 3 fatty acids, is anti-inflammatory, promotes the regeneration of skin cells, is emollient and moisturises the skin.

Juniperus Virginiana Oil - cedarwood oil, has astringent and antiseptic properties ideal for treating acne and oily skin conditions.

Lactic Acid - a alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) extracted from milk, in a pH-correct formula, lactic acid exfoliates cells on the surface of skin by breaking down the material that holds skin cells together. Lactic acid also has water-binding properties and, may help lighten skin discolorations.

Lactobacillus/Eriodictyoncalifornicum Ferment Extract - is the extract of the yerba santa plant, which is found in America. It is a water soluble extract used at 1% to 5% to offer moisturising and hydrating properties. It contains polysaccharides, that moisturise and glycoproteins that also help with moisturisation.

Laminaria Japonica Extract - a type of kelp, applied topically, it can help reduce inflammation and, like all forms of seaweed, has some amonut of moisture-binding properties due to its sterol content.

Lanolin - extracted from sheep wool, penetrates deeper into dry skin, and doesn’t just moisturise, but also creates a barrier in the underlying layers of skin to prevent moisture from escaping. This keeps skin supple longer, which means that those who use lanolin cream don’t have to apply it as often. The moisturising properties of this cream ease itching, while making the skin softer. Skin that is dry, cracked, and bleeding from extreme weather conditions can also benefit from lanolin cream, as the moisture barrier it creates keeps the skin from repeatedly cracking and helps to seal in moisture.

Lavandula Angustifolia - lavender contains antibacterial, anti inflammatory and antiseptic properties. Its benefits include the stimulation of new cell growth and a relaxing smell which may reduce anxiety.

Lavender Water - credited with being anti-allergenic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antibacterial, antispasmodic, balancing, energising, soothing, healing, toning and stimulating. Works well on all skin types and is effective in treating oily skin as well as acne, dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis.

Lecithin -a natural emulsifying agent and one of the most important components of cells. It is a naturally occurring mixture of the diglycerides of stearic, palmitic and oleic acids, linked to the choline ester of phosphoric acid and plays an important role in a cell's metabolism, especially regarding membrane penetration and has been used as a surfactant in cosmetics.

Lemon Juice - has natural antibacterial properties that make it a good choice to help cure acne and prevent further breakouts. It is a natural exfoliant since the citric acid acts as a gentle "skin peel" that removes the top layer of dead skin cells. This will result in a smooth complexion when used regularly. May also diminish the discoloration caused by scars, certain skin disorders and age spots.

Macadamia Integrifolia - macadamia nut oil has one of the highest sources of the essential fatty acid, palmitoleic acid this acid is very close to human sebum, in chemical profile. As mature skin is lacking in this essential fatty acid, it is an excellent carrier for all anti-aging, and mature, especially menopausal, treatment products, where it offers restructuring and moisturizing properties. (see also Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil)

Macadamia Ternifolia Seed Oil - contains one of the highest sources of Palmitoleic fatty acids, (between 16 to 23%) which is vital for delaying skin and cell aging. It also contains Oleic acid, a fatty acid that gives rejuvenation, regeneration and moisturizing properties, Linoleic acid, another fatty acid, that helps to prevent trans epidermal water loss, and is high in phytosterols which work the same way that cholesterol does in our skin, giving this oil good skin penetration abilities. Phytosterols are also thought to be calming and healing, and working to repair the skin’s barrier function. (see also Macadamia Integrifolia)

Macrocystis Pyrifera Extract - an extract of a giant brown seaweed, thought to be useful in skin care products thanks to its high iodine, vitamin and mineral content. It is considered an anti-septic and anti-irritant that can not only heal sun-damaged skin, but can prevent wrinkles.

Malva Sylvestris (Mallow) Leaf Extract - has a high mucilage content, the flower extract forms a soothing, protective gel soothing rough and dry skin. It also possesses anti-inflammatory properties, calming and caring for delicate, sensitive skin.  (See also Althaea Officinalis (Marshmallow) Extract) 

Mangifera Indica (Mango) Fruit Extract - the oil is said to be compatible with the skin and penetrates it well moisturising the skin and keeping it supple, it is also a source of antioxidant vitamins.

Mel (Manuka honey) - a potent anti-inflammatory, so soothes inflamed skin while healing blemishes. It also helps balance the skin’s pH and contains amino acids which slough away dead skin cells, helping to keep pores clear.

It has been shown to increase collagen cross-linking, promoting the structural growth of collagen in skin cells. And since amino acids are the building blacks of collagen, they also protect collagen. Healthy collagen means healthy, firm, youthful-looking skin. 

It is also a natural humectant, drawing moisture into the skin. This hydration helps to further enhance the skin’s elasticity and cell regeneration, as well as promote healing.
Melilotus Officinalis (Sweet clover) Extract - contains a source of coumarin which is thought to help heal skin lesions, burns and relieve skin irritations by stimulating lymph flow. It also has anti-inflammatory, moisturizing effects and is suitable for sensitive skin.

Melissa Officinalis Leaf Extract - from the leaves and flowers of the Balm Mint plant. Imparts an anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory action that has a calming, soothing effect on the skin.

Myristyl Nicotinate - a derivative of nicotinic acid, a component of vitamin B3 (niacin). It may help improve skin barrier function, mitigate signs of sun damage, and reduce the incidence of atopic dermatitis, commonly known as dry skin.

Nasturtium Officinale Extract - watercress extract, a source of lutein a carotenoid that may prevent UV damage and beta-carotene, which maintains skin health. Can treat disorders such as eczema and rashes is also high in vitamin C and antioxidant flavonoids.

Methylglucoside Phosphate - works with proline lysine copper to improve the appearance of the skin’s density and firmness and improve the skin’s elasticity.

Myristoyl Nonapeptide-3 - a peptide that supposedly mimics retinoic acid (vitamin A) to increase cell turnover and collagen synthesis without causing negative side effects, such as irritation and stinging.

Oenothera Biennis - evening primrose oil is comprised of a high content of omega 6 essential fatty acids and gamma linoleic acid (GLA). It is ideal for the treatment of dry skin and inflammatory conditions, such as eczema and arthritis.

Olea Europaea - or olive oil, contains vitamins E and A both natural antioxidants which can repair skin damage caused by weather, sun and air pollution. They stimulate skin cells, promoting faster regrowth and repair and slowing the skin-aging process. Olive oil contains linoleic acid which prevents water from evaporating, making it the perfect natural lubricant.

Palmitoyl Tripeptide-38 - a peptide produced from derivatives of the amino acids lysine and methione sulfone (the latter is synthetic). Palmitoyl tripeptide-38 is a matrikine-mimetic compound that regulates cell activity, wound repair and collagen tissue remodeling.

Panthenol - has been seen to improve hydration, reduce itching and inflammation of the skin. When Panthenol is applied topically, it can penetrate into lower skin layers, where it is absorbed into skin cells and processed into Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5). Because it is absorbed deeply into the skin, it adds essential moisture. Panthenol is also considered a potential acne treatment because of its absorption properties that can counteract bacteria and its anti-inflammatory properties.

PEG-60 Almond Glycerides - a polyethylene glycol derivative of fatty acids from almond oil, this ingredient functions as an emollient, skin-conditioning agent, and emulsifier, among others. It has plant (that being the almond) and synthetic properties, and is not considered a problematic ingredient.

Pelargonium Graveolens - geranium oil, known to create a balance between oily and dry skin by balancing the production of sebum; this balance assists in boosting and improving the elasticity of the skin. It also stimulates the lymphatic system, releasing excess water that may be retained in the tissue.

Persea Gratissima (Avocado) oil - an edible oil pressed from the fruit of the avocado, contains many vitamins that help skin rejuvenation and is known for its anti-oxidant properties; vitamins include vit A, various B vits including B1 & B2, vitamin D and E, as well as beta-carotene, potassium as well as Lethicin. It may be able to penetrate the skin more deeply increasing collagen production and giving relief to damaged skin caused by sun exposure and dry skin caused by eczema and psoriasis.

Phospholipids - have multiple uses, from keeping oils and water in potions mixed together and as a complex protective barrier for our skin. It is an emulsifier because it dissolves oil in water. Phospholipids are also carriers or transdermal delivery systems that can help other ingredients penetrate, they also have an antioxidant effect when combined with tocopherol (vitamin E).

Plantago Lanceolata (Plantain) Leaf Extract - known for its skin-cleansing properties, and is often used as a natural remedy for acne. A natural source of Salicylic acid which helps reduce acne breakouts. Is also emollient which combined with its astringent properties, help relieve skin dryness and dermatitis. (see also Plantago Major)

Plantago Major - see Plantago Lanceolata.

Plukenetia Volubilis Seed Oil - contains high doses of vitamins A and E and skin soothing amino acids which make it a powerful all natural antioxidant boosting ingredient.

Polygonum Fagopyrum Seed Extract - buckwheat extract, used for reducing puffiness and dark circles around the eye contour area. It is also a rich source of Bio-Flavonoids, which are well known for their anti-oxidant properties, protecting the cell membranes from free-radical damage.

Pogostemon Cablin Oil - also known as patchouli, can help stimulate new cell growth and calm inflamed skin, also has astringent properties that revitalize the skin, and diuretic properties that reduce excess fluids and puffiness.

Propanediol - a glycol that functions as a solvent. Can enhance the penetration of ingredients (such as salicylic acid) into the skin. It also has hydrating properties and can leave a smooth, moist finish on skin. (see also Propylene Glycol)

Propolis - has antiviral and antimicrobial action which provides benefits for acneic skin as well as those who deal with a lot of environmental pollution. It forms a barrier on the skin, and is very nutritious with antioxidants and vitamins.

Propylene Glycol - comes from propylene, which helps one ingredient dissolve into another, as a stabilizer, helping to keep products constant at various temperatures, as a emulsifier, which helps mix together a variety of ingredients and as a humectant, helping formulations to attract and hold onto moisture. Propylene glycol is metabolized by the body into lactic acid, which occurs naturally when muscles are exercised. (see also Propanediol)

Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis - or sweet almond oil, a non-volatile, non-fragrant oil extracted from the seeds of almonds and used as an emollient. Almond oil is a rich source of skin-repairing ingredients including triglycerides and several fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and myristic among them). It is not known to cause adverse reactions, although it’s an ingredient to consider avoiding if you have nut allergies.

Prunus Armeniaca - apricot kernel oil, rich in essential fatty acids, which are vital components of the human organism. As a result, this nourishing oil helps to replenish and rebuild the skin.

Prunus Persica Kernal Oil - peach oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acid and oleic acid that help skin to lock in the moisture and retain elasticity. It is also a rich source of antioxidants which has anti aging properties.

Pseudoalteromonas Ferment Extract - a strain of bacteria isolated from mud found on King George Island in Antarctica. It is a peptide that is classified as a protein derivative, and contains three amino acid residues, glycine, histidine and lysine. It is used in a number of anti-aging products because of its ability to regenerate and protect the skin by retaining moisture and water, heal wounds, increase collagen and elastin production, and improve hydration.

Punica Granatum Extract - also known as pomegranate, has high levels of Vitamin C and antioxidants, which can help prevent cell damage. Can possibly stimulate the production of collagen and prevent the breakdown of collagen fibres. Provides UVA- and UVB-induced damage control, skin regeneration and hyperpigmentation control.

Purified Water - Purified water is water that comes from any source, but has been purified to remove any chemicals or contaminants. It has its advantages and disadvantages, the advantages being that potentially harmful chemicals may be taken out and the disadvantage being that beneficial minerals may be taken out as well.

Rosa Canina - rosehip oil, composed of many powerful antioxidants such as retinol (vitamin A) which help delay the effects of skin aging, also assists with cell regeneration; and promotes collagen & elastin levels to increase. Linoleic acid (Omega 6 oil), Oleic acid (Omega 9 fatty acid), Lycopene, Beta-carotene, pro-vitamin A and vitamin C all of these and more have skin rejuvenating properties which are very effective against skin pigmentation and aging wrinkles especially formed from sun damage.

Rosa Damascene Flower Oil - the petals of the rose plant contain anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds that can benefit skin. However the numerous chemicals that create the rose fragrance pose a risk of irritation and allergic contact dermatitis.

Rosa Rubiginosa Seed Oil - extracted from the seeds of the rose from the southern Andes of Argentina and Chile, used for its Vitamin A (Retinol) and Vitamin C content, as well as its antioxidant, diuretic (which reduces puffiness) and astringent properties.

It is also high in GLA, an essential fatty acid which helps to reduce fine lines and combat the drying effects of the sun, environment and climate. Other fatty acids found in high levels in the oil include Linoleic Acid (47.4%) and Linolenic Acid (33%), which help healing and regeneration, while preventing the formation of thick keloid scar tissue and are helpful in healing burns, scars and stretch marks.

Rose Floral Water - natural rose water is a gently cleansing and toning product for all skin types which maintains the pH balance, stimulates the regeneration processes and has a calming effect in acne and sunburns it can also promote healthy and elastic skin.

Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary) Leaf Extract - has antioxidant benefits for the skin, but its aromatic components can cause irritation or sensitizing reactions. Most skincare products contain too small an amount of rosemary extract to be a risk, also rosemary extract is less of a problem for skin than rosemary oil because the extract doesn’t contain much, of rosemary oil’s fragrance components.

Royal Jelly Extract - considered to be one of the world's most nutrient-rich substances, packed with 134 nutrients, including essential amino acids, minerals and Vitamins B1, B2, B5, B6, C, E along with Biotin, Niacin and Folic Acid. Also known to help enhance skin's texture and reduce the appearance of fine lines. Royal jelly has also been found to have antioxidant properties and be beneficial to over-all health and anti-aging programs.

Ruscus Aculeatus Root Extract - the butchers broom plant extract helps maintain the skin’s elasticity and texture. As it constricts blood vessels it can help to diminish the appearance dark circles under the eyes. It is also anti inflammatory and astringent. The pore-reducing quality of butcher’s broom helps skin appear smoother overall, and is also beneficial for oily and acne-prone skin.

Salicylic Acid - is a BHA or beta hydroxy acid derived from the metabolism of salicin, which is an anti-inflammatory agent usually found in the bark of the willow tree. It can be found in other fruits and vegetables such as kiwis, olives and almonds to name a few. It is an exfoliant without the risk of damaging small blood vessels and creating micro-tears in the epidermis that manual exfoliaters risk.
With the ability to penetrate through the cell membrane right into pores salicylic acid helps to reduce the over production of sebum, softens and exfoliates dead skin cells that have built up within the pore and allowing room for new cell growth. It also increases cell turnover, and it can increase collagen production leading to smoother, fresher looking skin.

Santalum Album (Sandalwood) Oil - can have antioxidant properties and there is research showing it minimizes herpes breakouts.

Serine - an amino acid, a naturally occurring proteinogenic amino acid that is derived from silk proteins, and plays an important role in the body by helping to form the phospholipids (a major component of the cell membrane) that make up each cell. It also aids in DNA production, fat and fatty acid metabolism, muscle formation, and the maintenance of a healthy immune system. Amino acids are generally thought to be beneficial to the skin because of their ability to aid in collagen production, boost skin's elasticity, and replenish moisture.

Sesamum Indicum - or sesame oil, contains vitamin E a natural antioxidant, it also contains linoleic acids, stearic acids, and palmitic acids making it an excellent moisturiser and emollient for full-body skin.

Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil - has been shown to enhance skin’s barrier-repair properties and ability to heal from damage. A plant oil that is a rich source of fatty acids that skin recognises and can use, jojoba oil also seems to stimulate collagen production and help skin better defend itself against UV light damage. Jojoba oil can also provide topical anti-inflammatory benefits.

Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate -a relatively new derivative of Vitamin C, considered to be gentle and stable, waits to convert into Ascorbic Acid once it is absorbed. It is thought to be a powerful antioxidant that can treat acne on the surface and even stimulate collagen.

Sodium Citrate - used to control the pH level of a product, this ingredient also has antioxidant and preservative properties.

Sodium Glycolate -  the salt of Glycolic Acid, is used primarily as an exfoliant or buffering agent, but also seen as pH adjusters and skin-conditioning agents. It is considered an AHA, a type of ingredient used to diminish the lines on the skin by acting as a humectant, or absorbing moisture in air and by exfoliating action to break the bonds between dead skin cells. Sodium Glycolate is sometimes considered a milder alternative to Glycolic Acid,

Sodium Hyaluronate - applied topically to the skin it can reach deep down into the dermis to combine with, maintain and attract water. It also promotes skin/blood microcirculation and nutrient absorption, and helps maintain normal metabolism. Thanks to its super-sized hydrating properties, sodium hyaluronate will result in smoother, softer skin with decreased wrinkles and a temporary all-around fuller appearance. (see Hyaluronic Acid Sodium Salt and Hydrolyzed Sodium Hyaluronate)

Sodium Hyaluronate Crosspolymer - apparently has a 3-dimensional lattice structure that is made up of numerous Sodium Hyaluronate units held tightly together. As enzymes break the bonds of the lattice due to daily metabolism, Sodium Hyaluronate units are released and are allowed to move freely. This enables skin to be continuously replenished with Sodium Hyaluronate over long periods of time.

Sodium PCA - Occurs naturally in human skin and is responsible for binding moisture to the cells. Highly water-absorbent, holding several time its weight in water, which makes it an excellent humectant. Well-know as skin-penetration enhancer. It is a stronger hydrating agent than the traditional compounds such as glycerin and propylene glycol. It is also good for hair care as it reduces static electricity.

Soy Amino Acids - rich in protein, minerals and vitamins, especially vitamin E. It is commonly used in bath oil and soap making, as well as for skin conditioning and skin firming because it is a natural emollient and moisturiser.

Squalene - refined from olives it completely and rapidly penetrates the skin, is apparently a antioxidant, prevents UV damage and the formation of age spots, promotes cell growth and is an antibacterial.

Sucrose - a humectant which has water-binding properties for skin. (see Fructose & Glucose)

Tamarindus Indica Seed Gum - may improves skin elasticity, hydration and smoothness to the skin and could compare to Hyaluronic Acid in its efficacy.

Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate - a stable, oil-soluble form of Vitamin C with the ability to increase collagen levels, reduce melanin production, brighten skin, and repair the effects of UV exposure and other environmental damage. It is also considered to be more potent than L-asorbic acid and other Vitamin C compounds, and has a higher rate of penetration (because it is lipid soluble, like human skin) than other derivatives; it also has a higher rate of conversion to vitamin C within the dermis.

Theobroma Cacao (Cocoa) butter - the fat obtained from the seeds of Theobroma cacoa. It temporarily protects injured or exposed skin from harmful or annoying stimuli and may provide relief to the skin. Cocoa butter also slows the loss of water from the skin by forming a barrier on the skin's surface.

Tilia Cordata (Linden Flower) Extract - reputed to have soothing, hydrating and astringent properties. It is often prescribed for use in creams to soothe irritated skin.

Tocopheryl Acetate - a form of vitamin E,  attributed with antioxidant, anti-aging, moisturizing, anti-inflammatory, and enhanced SPF properties, most bioavailable, and thus the most readily absorbed by the body. (see also Tocopherol)

Tocopherol - a form of vitamin E, attributed with antioxidant, anti-aging, moisturizing, anti-inflammatory properties. (see also Tocopheryl Acetate)

Trehalose - a sugar found in plants, fungi and invertebrate animals. It is considered useful because of its rehydrating and water binding properties, as well as its antioxidant powers. When applied topically it may allow the skin to retain moisture that it would otherwise lose, creating dry skin and potentially increasing aging signs.

Trifolium Pratense Flower Extract - also known as clover, has anti-inflammatory agents and inhibits arachidonic acid cascade enzymes associated with skin inflammation.

Thymus Vulgaris Leaf Extract - thyme, an antiseptic rich in thymol, It refreshes the skin and has excellent use in toners.

Urea - a humectant, a natural component of our skin’s tissues and makes up to around 7% of our natural moisturising factor. Extremely hydrating and moisturising, and really helps bring relief to a dry skin. It can also create a local anesthetic effect within the skin helping to reduce cycles of inflammation and flare-ups.

Vitis Vinifera (Grape) seed oil - contains natural antioxidant properties and malic acid, which is considered an AHA (alpha hydroxy acid) AHA ingredients in cosmetics help exfoliate the top layers of skin, promote moisture restoration which in turn helps penetration of other ingredients.

Yeast Extract - has skin conditioning and moisturising properties, and are believed to increase the production of collagen by fibroblasts in the dermis of the skin.

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